The Sumerians conquered by its neighbors, that is the Semitic peoples living in northern BC in the year 2300. Semites was probably closely related to the Sumerians. They were the ancestors of the Jews and Arabs. Semitic king who conquered Sumer named Sargon the Great. He ruled over the region of Sumerian and Akkadian (Mesopotamia). The capital city of Agade (Akkad). King later. Ur-Nammu (2113-2096 BC), ruled a large empire. To demonstrate his power he built a huge ziggurat. The building was built on a hill. There are three stairs to climb to the peak, each comprising one hundred stairs. Sumerian split into small units of warring. Towards the year 2200 BC. One of the city which became a cultural center is the city of Babylon (Babylon). According to experts, the name of Babylon came and said Babila. Experts said that according to etymology (the study of the origin of the word), is derived and babilu word meaning gateway to god.
Now the city of Babylon is located 97 kilometers south of Baghdad, on the banks of the Euphrates River, South Iraq. The city is the center of commerce, religion, and the capital of the kingdom of Babylon. Babylon rectangular shape with flowing Euphrates River in the middle. There are walls around are decorated with images of wild animals. In the town found several temples such as the temple of Marduk. In the center of the temple there is the Tower of Babel. Not far away, and there are the famous Hanging Gardens as one and the Seven Wonders of the World. The park was built on an artificial hill. High park about 107 meters. The shape of the podium were planted with trees, grass, and flowers. There is an artificial waterfall water from the river that flowed to the top of the hill, and then flows through artificial channels. Be a cool in hot and dry areas. Remains of the city of Babylon is now just rubble alone.
Babylonians divided the territory into two states, in the southeast of the Sumerian Akkadian in the northwest. In the year 1850 BC. Sumer and Akkad history decorated by wars unfailing. Nevertheless, their culture continues to grow. After Sumerian lost. Akkadian under the reign of the Amorites develop into the kingdom of Babylon who controlled all of southern Mesopotamia. Assyrians, and northern Mesopotamia. Famous king named Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC). He was king of the 6th and the first dynasty of Babylon master. During his reign he was advancing education, science, and issued a written law. The law is known as the Law of Hammurabi. The law is very hard and consists of 280 chapters.
Law of Hammurabi, among others, set about theft and artisan tadahnya, corruption, murder, kidnapping, fraud, taxation, defamation, and family life. The legislation aims to uphold justice, protect the people from oppression, and combating crime. Therefore, although the law is very hard, Hammurabi was considered protector of the people. His son, Samsuiluna (1749-1712 BC) succeeded him as king. Babylonian empire in decline. The southern region, Larsa, escape from the power of Babylon. The walls of the city of Ur, Uruk, and Larsa torn down. King Samsuiluna build a fortress to withstand attacks Kassite the year 1726 BC. The last king of Dynasty of Babylon, Samsuditana, conquered by King Mursilis I of the Hittite Empire in 1595 BC. Mursilis I managed to unite the countries of the city and make the Hittite Empire became the third major power in the Middle East compete with Egyptian and Babylonian empire.
Read Also : Mesopotamian Sumerian City History
Read Also : Mesopotamian Sumerian City History
Assyrians can break away and establish a new kingdom. The ruler of the kingdom of Assyria captured the city of Babylon padatahun 745-639 BCE. Several times the population of the Babylonian rebellion against the Assyrian ruler, but can be extinguished by King Sennacherib. Babylon was destroyed in the year 639 BC. However, eleven years later, the city was rebuilt by Assarhaddon, son of Sennacherib. In a series of subsequent war, a new dynasty emerged, the second dynasty of Isin city. Famous king, Nebuchadnessa 1 (1124-1103 BC). He conquered Elam and Assyria Dynasty. Babylon is controlled by the kings of Assyria until the end of the 7th century BC. The last king who ruled in Babylon is the King Asurbanipal. After that, the new king of Babylon and ruled by Chaldean nation, that is Nabopolassar. He made Babylon the capital of the kingdom.
Babylon then again reached the golden age. His territory extends to Sicily. He was succeeded by his son, Nebuchadnessar II (605-562 BC). King was conquered Syria and Palestine in 587, then rebuild the city of Babylon, as well as improve the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Temple of Marduk, and Zigguratnya. Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon then of Persia in 539 BC. Alexander the Great master of Babylon in the year 331. When entering the capital city of Babylon, Alexander died. One commander, Seleucos, was appointed as ruler of Mesopotamia. Babylon controlled by the Parthians In the year 200, and the last by the Sasanian nation before destroyed. Arab nations utilize the ruins of Babylon to be built into the town of Al-Hillah in the year 200. Remains of the city of Babylon is now only in the form of ruins. Most of the city gate Hanging Gardens of Babylon and partially restored by the current Iraqi government.