Mesopotamian civilization includes Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Persian. The history of the old civilization of Mesopotamia developed between the two great rivers, the Euphrates and the Tigris, which is a region of Iraq now. Both rivers disgorge Mountains Armenia (now Turkey) and flows to the southeast toward the Persian Gulf. The area covers approximately six thousand square kilometers that have high fertility and comfortable climate. The region became the residence of various nations and the growth of high civilization. Region around Akkad or Agade (now Baghdad) occupied by nomadic Semitic peoples such as Hebrew and Arabic. In the south came the Sumerians. Nations are expected to come and eastward is composed of farmers and build beautiful cities. Circa 4000 BC, the people who lived in Mesopotamia has built a number of cities in the south of Mesopotamia Downstream which became known as Sumer. Kerika arab nations immigrated to North, they met with the Semites. The meeting resulted in a new civilization called Mesopotamia.viakitabsejarah
Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the mountains of Armenia disgorge, empties into the Persian Gulf. Both flows adjacent almost in its mouth. The region has been inhabited since around the year 4000 BC. There is a distinct mention of the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. Ancient authors call Sumerian. whereas in the Bible called the valley of Shinar. We now call Mesopotamia (Iraq country), it means the land between the two rivers flow. The soil is very fertile because of frequent flooding. Fertility is what attracted the attention of nomadic tribes in the desert areas further west, or occupants caves in the east. Ethnic groups that are then known as the Sumerians. Sumerian is the oldest nations inhabiting the area. They left the ancient Mesopotamian culture. At first they lived hunting, then began to control floods. How to make a castle ground, tunnels, and channel to straighten the flow of the river. Its function as an irrigation canal that became the backbone of agriculture in the area of Mesopotamia.
Sumerians then built cities with government as a country that is known as the City State. Increasing population make the city into a narrow region. Expansion of the city cause problems irrigation in the region, and sometimes lead to war between cities. War victory means they managed to expand its territory. Famous cities are strong and rich Ur. Kish Larsa, Lahash, Eridu, Nippur, and etiquette. Frequent intercity war. Each city has its infantry soldiers, chariots and troops were withdrawn wild ass. As a result of the war then appeared town really strong with a tough dynasties, such as Kish Ur, Erech, and Lagash. Fenced with a wall around the city until the year 3000 BC. The first city wall is given Uruk and 2700-2650 years BC. Sumerian adept at once to build homes and similar woven thatch leaves, covered with mud and then sun-dried. They are not made of stone houses in the Mesopotamian region because no rocks.
In addition, the Sumerians also skilled growing wheat. Vegetables, weaving fabric, and cut the trees to be used as a train wheel. They are the people who first created the article. Written form triangles as nails. Pencraft was very important, because the person writing can send a message or store knowledge in order to be read by others. Sumerian writings inscribed on soft clay and dried. Slab of clay is heavy but durable. Content and clay tablets were diverse, ranging trade and letters, agricultural calendar, prescription drugs to the rules / laws. Sumerian law is the law of the oldest in the world. And manuscript clay found in Uruk, it can be seen in the first ruler of Uruk was Gilgamesh. He became a character in the story kepahhawanan in the Mesopotamian region. Manuscript clay was also found in the cities of Sumer lainnya.Bangsa also the first nation to divide the year into 360 days, one hour consists of 60 minutes. Then divide a circle into 360 degrees.
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Sumerian cities equipped with a temple called a ziggurat. The building was made of bricks that had been burned. Shaped like a pyramid that was built on an artificial hill. The shape of the building designed by the Sumerian Ziggurat later become the basic form of the whole architecture in the area of Mesopotamia. At the top of the building there is room for the city god. That space could be achieved through a large staircase and the ground floor. For the purposes of making a statue of the god, the sculptor of stone brought from other areas.
Every change of season. Sumerian hold offerings to the god of the city. They believe, harvest, health, and safety they rely on the mercy of the gods. Their offerings ranging from wheat, wool, to silver. Some of the famous Sumerian king is Enmebaragesi of Dynasty of Kish. He is the oldest king of Mesopotamia. King Dynasty other Kish is Mesilim and Urzababa. Famous king of Ur is Mesannepada. Famous king of the city of Lagash is Eannatum, and Ur-Nashe. The location of the Mesopotamian area so well, causing the area was later developed into a center of trade between Arab in the south by Armenia to the north and India in the east to the Middle East region in the west.