Understanding gender based violence :articles
definition: Gender-based violence is violence between men against women, or vice versa. Violence against fellow human beings have a source or a variety of reasons, such as political, religious belief, racism, and gender ideology. One of the causes of the violence is due to the ideology of gender.
definition: Gender-based violence is violence that is directed at a woman because she is a woman or violence that affects women disproportionately a. This includes damage or physical suffering, mental or sexual abuse, intimidation, coercion, and deprivation of liberty.
To understand gender ideology or belief, it must first be understood sense of the word gender to sex (gender). In language, the word gender is derived from English, which means sex. In Women's Studies Encyclopedia, explained that gender is a cultural concept, seeks to make distinction in terms of roles, behavior, mentality, and emotional characteristics between men and women who thrive in society. Hilary M. Lips in his famous book Sex and Gender: an Introduction defines gender as a cultural expectations of men and women.
Another understanding of gender according to Mansour Fakih (1999) is a characteristics and properties attached to the men and women who are socially and culturally constructed. For example: that women are known to gentle, beautiful, emotional, and motherhood. While men are considered strong, rational, male, and mighty. The characteristics and the properties are properties that can be exchanged and amended from time to time. So, there is an emotional man, gentle, and motherhood, while there is also a strong woman, rational, and mighty. Changes in the characteristics of these properties may occur from time to time and from place to place.
The term public space is often used to describe the spaces in the city such as roads, parks, courts and public buildings are open to the public and can be accessed by any person of the opposite-as a private space to which access is restricted.
The use of public space is an essential part of everyday life of women and men in the town and is an important arena for promoting social inclusion in the city (Grundstrom, without year). However, in the use of public space, often gender-based violence.
Gender-based violence that occurs in public spaces is a phenomenon that occurs in various countries. The survey, conducted in Cairo, Giza and Qalubiya Egypt in 2008 showed that 83% of Egyptian women and 98% of foreign women reported being sexually abused (Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights, 2008 in Lambrick & Rainero 2010). In Argentina in 2002, 83% of the total victims of violence are women (CISCSA 2005 in Lambrick & Rainero 2010). A survey conducted in New York, United States, in 2007 found that 63% of female respondents said that they had become victims of sexual abuse and sexual abuse mostly occurred in the subway or subway station (Stringer, 2007 in Lambrick & Rainero 2010). In 2010 in India 70% of women reported experiencing verbal abuse and visual and 30% experienced physical abuse Related resources jagori site org
A survey in Egypt found that 62% of male respondents said that they had sexually harassed women (Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights, 2008 in Lambrick & Rainero 2010).
While a global survey on the experience of sexual harassment on the street found that a form of harassment against women in the form of whistling 95%, movement or gesture vulgar 82%, 81% sexually suggestive comments, followed / stalked 75%, 57% sexually touched, public masturbation 37 %, and 27% were sexually assaulted (Kearl, 2008 in Lambrick & Rainero 2010). Meanwhile in Jakarta since the last few years a lot of gender-based violence in the public sphere, especially in public transport, which is accompanied by the confiscation of property, and even murder.
Any violence that occurs in the community, actually departed from a particular ideology that legitimizes the oppression on the one of other individuals and groups against the other party caused by a perceived inequalities that exist in society. Underdog cornered in a position where they are in fear by way of periodic appearance of strength.
Along with the times today men do not always dominate women, gender equality results in men and women are placed in the same position and both have the potential to dominate. So that the public perception of the necessity for masculine men and feminine women become increasingly ambiguous. Along with the development of a more permissive view of society, then it is possible for a man and a woman becomes feminine becomes masculine.
Geographically, gender-based violence in its various forms that occur in public space is defined as a man to maintain power / dominance in public spaces that have long been regarded as a male's territory and the efforts to narrow the space of women in the public sphere.
Keyword and sources, #gender based violence and development #gender based violence and mental health
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