Deconstructing Ebola virus information


Deconstructing Ebola virus information 
Deconstructing Ebola The sixth month in the west of the African continent is rampant epidemic of Ebola. What is this disease, what scientific achievements have been made in the study of diseases and ways to combat it, what is the contribution of Russian scientists in research filovirus and why now domestic research in this area are going through hard times, says Sc.D., Professor virologist Alexander Chepurnov. From the city to the river Ebola Marburg In 1967, the party of monkeys from Uganda arrived in European research centers in Belgrade, Frankfurt and Marburg. After some time, a number of researchers working with these animals and their tissues, sick, many subsequently died. Disease have been reported and their contacts. At the Institute of Virology, University of Marburg Philip, memorable Russians as a place of study of Mikhail Lomonosov, was isolated pathogen emerged disease, named for the city - Marburg virus. Fixed to the epidemic mortality rate was 27 percent. It is important to note that the disease is not characterized by the ability to multiple transmission from person to person. One - a maximum of two programs, and the people living on the person recovered. The morphology of the detected virus was unique and not previously met. It was a long thread-like structure, sometimes branching, sometimes curled in the form of a donut. Gave its name to form a new family of viruses - filoviruses (from the Latin filium - thread). In 1976, while in the Sudan and the Republic of the Congo (then - Zaire) has experienced major outbreaks of unknown disease. Almost all the sick died. The research allowed to isolate the virus, morphologically similar to Marburg virus. Abjection of this infection is known as the Ebola virus on the name of a small river in Zaire, near the village of Yambuku which was marked by the epidemic. Outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire, despite the relative proximity of the areas differ in terms of mortality. In the epidemic in Sudan were involved 284 people, 151 of them died (53 percent), in Zaire ill 318, and 280 died (88 percent). Differences in the level of mortality in some other biological properties it possible to distinguish two subspecies: Ebola-Sudan and Ebola-Zaire. The disease is spread largely in-hospital, as the Ebola virus is transmitted to humans through close contact with the blood, secretions or body fluids of sick people and animals. One of the outbreaks in Gabon began with the fact that hunters shot and consume food hamadryad patient. Then their sick relatives and villagers, to care for sick hunters, as well as people involved in the burial. In Africa, documented cases of human infection as a result of handling dead or sick animals: chimpanzees, gorillas, carnivorous bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines. Then the Ebola virus spreads in communities of people by transferring from person to person through close contact (through skin disorders or mucosa) from the organs, blood, secretions or other body fluids of infected people, as well as indirect contact with media such contaminated liquids. Doctors and nurses, including those from European countries and the United States, Africa, working, dying repeatedly, becoming infected by patients. In 1990, the quarantine for imported primates in Reston (USA) began a massive destruction of monkeys. Electron microscopy revealed the bodies of dead animals ebolopodobnye characteristic structure. First impression: at the center of US Ebola outbreak is raging! While only in primates, but what's next? However, the course of events has shown that people, even in close contact with monkeys, do not get sick. Some of these antibodies were found to Ebola virus. It became clear that the virus (which became known as Reston), brought with primates from the Philippines, has not pathogenic to humans, although it is highly virulent for primates. In the Philippines, virus was isolated also from pigs who had no clinical signs of disease. Among workers who had contact with the apes and pigs infected with Ebola Reston, several cases of virus infection, which flows clinically asymptomatic. Later in Africa were identified two subtypes of Ebola virus: Bundibugyo (case fatality rate - 51 per cent) and the Tai Forest, formerly known as Côte d'Ivoire (the only one sick survived). A detailed list of Ebola epidemics can see in the resource Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases. However, the table does not cases of laboratory infections in Hamburg, Fort Detrick, Sergiev Posad and Novosibirsk. Finally, in 2002, from bats in the caves of Spain was isolated ebolapodobny virus, named after Lloviu. It, as well as Ebola Reston showed cases of human infection. Thus, a total of six known subtypes of Ebola virus, the most virulent (mortality up to 90 percent) is the Ebola-Zaire, the culprit today epidemic in West Africa. via lenta.ru

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